By Linda A Cumberland; Indiana University, Bloomington
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Extra info for A grammar of Assiniboine : a Siouan language of the Northern Plains [Montana, Saskatchewan]
T±éehâ ‘a looong way’ and iyúuha ‘aaall’ (“every last one of them ; every last bit of it”). NET 23 occurring enclitics do not lengthen. As with interjections, vowel length can be extensive, but unlike the interjections, intonation is level throughout. (12a) Hï! eyáš 0 / -ëštéecàpi né ®ü oh! of ‘oh! 18) • Vowel length occurs in what may be termed “processing hesitation,” as a speaker considers what to say next or searches for a lexical form. This is frequently heard on the conjunction hïk (hïëëëk) ‘and’ (but not on other conjunctions), and the hesitation form nø (nøøø) ‘um, uh’.
Phonetic effects in monosyllabic clusters The stops k and t are often accompanied by slight aspiration or voicing when they are the first member of a tautosyllabic cluster. NET 38 occurring in slightly fewer than fifty percent of the tokens analyzed instrumentally (Cum berland 2000), and are found among all speakers. As the first member of a cluster with n or t, k will often be slightly aspirated, or it may be slightly voiced. Each of the stops p t k may have slight aspiration when occurring as the second member of a cluster.
Th e tw o glottal s tops differ in tha t the first is phonetic and the secon d is phonem ic. 9 Finally,® occurs morphemically as a declarative marker. In this position, incomplete closure causes ® to surface sometimes as ö or h, and sometimes as schwa,10 so that while ® is non-syllabic, its schwa variant is a semi-vowel that sounds syllabic but otherwise doesn’t behave like a vowel. It is not devoiced when phrase final as any other phrase final vowel would be, nor is it separated from a preceding vowel by the insertion of (yet another) glottal stop, as would normally occur by the rule of glottal insertion (discussed in section 11).