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Additional info for A Historical Archaeology Of The Ottoman Empire - Breaking New Ground

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However, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this system was undergoing change. In many Ottoman lands, the timar system was being replaced by the çiftlik system, in which absentee landlords held large estates as hereditary properties worked by tenant farmers. (This understanding of the development of the çiftlik has been challenged in recent studies. 1 Other studies have led to a related conclusion, that the traditional Ottoman system was never applied in Crete. Instead, the land was left in the free possession of its inhabitants, as ‘The explanations furnished by the laws of Chania and Candia in 1676 following the conquest of Crete openly reject the system of land ownership by the state as contrary to Islamic tradition’ (Barkan [1983:21–2].

The erratic nature of the grain supply meant that the situation had to be constantly monitored by local authorities. A famine in 1670 resulted in a ban on exporting grain, but in 1674 the harvest was excellent, and the ban was lifted so that producers might sell their excess crops (Stavrinidis 1976:170). The vagaries of grain production and supply are not easy to explain. The fertility or productive capacity of the land does not present itself as a static quantity. ) of wheat (Stavrinidis 1979:151; 1988: 169)?

C. ), Columbia University Press, New York. pp. 45–77. Toombs, L. E. 1985 Tell el-Hesi: Modern Military Trenching and Muslim Cemetery in Field I, Strata I and II. The Joint Archaeological Expedition to Tell el-Hesi. Volume Two. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Ontario. von Hammer, J. 1834 Narrative of navels in Europe, Asia, and Africa in the Seventeenth Century by Evliya Efendi. Oriental Translation Fund, London. Wallerstein, I. 1974 The Modern World System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century.

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