By Aidan Doyle

During this publication, Aidan Doyle lines the heritage of the Irish language from the time of the Norman invasion on the finish of the twelfth century to independence in 1922, combining political, cultural, and linguistic background. The e-book is split into seven major chapters that concentrate on a particular interval within the historical past of the language; they each one start with a dialogue of the exterior heritage and place of the Irish language within the interval, prior to relocating directly to examine the real inner alterations that came about at the moment. A background of the Irish Language makes on hand for the 1st time fabric that has formerly been inaccessible to scholars and students who can't learn Irish, and may be a precious source not just for undergraduate scholars of the language, yet for all these drawn to Irish background and tradition.

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Extra info for A History of the Irish Language: From the Norman Invasion to Independence

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Here are some words which entered Irish at this time and which are still part of the language: () bagún ‘bacon’, buidéal ‘bottle’, captaoin ‘captain’, clóca ‘cloak’, clós ‘close, yard’, cófra ‘coffer, chest’, cóta ‘coat’, cúirt ‘court’, cupa ‘cup’, dínér ‘dinner’, gúna ‘gown’, méara ‘mayor’, ósta ‘inn’ (< oste), páipéar ‘paper’, paróiste ‘parish’, pláta ‘plate’, plúr ‘flour’, séipéal ‘chapel’, seomra ‘chamber’, siúcra ‘sugar’ ospidéal ‘hospital’, túr ‘tower’ Some new verbs entered the language as well at this time.

This, and our knowledge of the conventions of the scribes, enables us to rewrite the ending of the first line, so that we arrive at a Thorna for athorna. We are now beginning to make progress, we know that the poet is addressing somebody called Torna. Applying the same kind of process to the other lines of the verse, we can bring them into line with modern conventions for writing, and produce a version which is more or less intelligible to somebody who has studied EMI and is familiar with its grammar and vocabulary.

With older manuscripts, though, the modern editor has to struggle with ink-stains and other extraneous marks, with careless copying, and even with missing pages. A first transcription of the verse might look like this: () Olc do thaigrais athorna ge bheith dfeabhas healadhna tar ceann leithe mogha muigh re niall cosgrach a ccrúachain OUP CORRECTED PROOF – FINAL, 13/5/2015, SPi THE SHAPE OF THE LANGUAGE (–)  This first version, where the spelling of the scribe is reproduced exactly, is called a diplomatic edition.

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