By William R. Elkins

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Extra resources for A New English Primer: An Introduction to Linguistic Concepts and Systems

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Since the A New English Primer T-af is a mandatory transformation, it naturally influences the creation of all sentence·s. The following points explain its variations. Tense transforms to follow the modal option. If the modal does not appear, tense follows the first aux option in the string: will + past + have + be + part. + see + ing = would have been seeing have + past + see + part. ing = was seeing 2. Part. transforms to follow be. If be+ ing does not appear, part. transforms to follow the Vi or Vt form: had have + past + be + part.

I I I + the + dog + sing. the the + 58 A New English Primer T-af ~ the + boy + sing. + have + pres. + see + part. + the + dog + sing. # the # boy + sing. # have + pres. # see + part. # the # dog + sing. # The boy has seen the dog. 3. /s"' NP /1 I Dn + N + pers. NULL NULL + + VP + tense + \~verbal \ pro. + pastI + ViI +" le \ 1n >~~ l e NP be + past + + the + noun + sing. l L + + plident +~ng. T-a£ ~ NULL + she + be + past + the + president+ sing. # NULL # she # be + past # the # president + sing.

6. H. , Ameri- can WriteTS in Rebellion: FTOm Mark Twain to DreiseT (New York: Hill and Wang, 1965), p. 98. Suggested Readings Note: Complete bibliographic information for each entry appears in Appendix C: Selected Bibliography. 1• Chapter 15, "Substitution," pp. 1, and Chapter 16, "Form-Classes and Lexicon," pp. 264-280. I• "Grammar As a Formal System," pp. 47-69. Francis, W. Nelson, The Structure of American English, 1958, Chapter 6, "Grammar, Part II: Syntactic Structures," pp. 291-1166. Fries, Charles Carpenter, The Structure of English, 1952, Chapter 8, "Structural Patterns of Sentences," pp.

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