By Leslie H Stennes; Michigan State University. African Studies Center
Read or Download A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani PDF
Best grammar books
Decode the secret of English grammar so as to add polish to your papers, emails, company letters, and extra
English Grammar Demystified teaches the basics of the topic in a simple, step by step strategy that lets you research at your personal velocity. With aid from this ebook, you are going to comprehend the elements of speech, discover ways to use punctuation adequately, grasp verb tenses, spot and keep away from universal grammatical error, and enhance your total sentence structures.
Throughout the ebook you could video display your development via self-tests, and a entire ultimate examination on the finish of the ebook provides speedy suggestions on new language skills.
What do you get in case you combine 9 elements of speech, one nice author, and beneficiant dashes of perception, humor, and irreverence? One phenomenally interesting language book.
In his waggish but authoritative ebook, Ben Yagoda has controlled to undo the darkish paintings of legions of English lecturers and libraries of dusty grammar texts. no longer for the reason that institution condo Rock have adjectives, adverbs, articles, conjunctions, interjections, nouns, prepositions, pronouns, and verbs been explored with such infectious exuberance. learn should you seize an Adjective, Kill It and:
Learn the best way to write greater with vintage suggestion from writers corresponding to Mark Twain (“If you capture an adjective, kill it”), Stephen King (“I think the line to hell is paved with adverbs”), and Gertrude Stein (“Nouns . . . are thoroughly no longer interesting”).
Marvel at how a unmarried notice can shift from adverb (“I did okay”), to adjective (“It used to be an ok movie”), to interjection (“Okay! ”), to noun (“I gave my okay”), to verb (“Who okayed this? ”), counting on its use.
Avoid the pretentious preposition at, a favourite of genuine property builders (e. g. , “The Shoppes at White Plains”).
Laugh while Yagoda says he “shall name someone a dork to the tip of his days” who insists on holding the excellence among shall and should.
Read, and find a publication whose popular culture references, funny asides, and bracing doses of discernment and customary feel exhibit Yagoda’s specified feel of the “beauty, the enjoyment, the artistry, and the thrill of language. ”
The alternation among the auxiliaries BE and feature, which this assortment examines, is usually mentioned in reference to generative analyses of cut up intransitivity. yet this book's objective is to put the phenomenon in a broader context. recognized proof within the Romance and Germanic language households are prolonged with info from lesser studied languages and dialects (Romanian, Paduan), and in addition with experimental and old facts.
This special three-volume 2007 survey brings jointly a workforce of prime students to discover the syntactic and morphological constructions of the world's languages. truly equipped and broad-ranging, it covers issues comparable to parts-of-speech, passives, complementation, relative clauses, adverbial clauses, inflectional morphology, demanding, element, temper, and diexis.
- Auxiliaries: Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization
- Grammatically Correct (2nd Edition)
- A descriptive grammar of Huastec (Potosino dialect)
- An Old English Grammar
- The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar (Oxford Handbooks)
Extra info for A reference grammar of Adamawa Fulani
In this case, the speaker isn’t using John as a proper noun to name and refer to a particular person. John is being used here as a common noun. What we mean by common noun is a word that is recognized by speakers to denote a particular class of entity. So, in this particular use of John, the speaker isn’t referring to a particular person named John, but rather a class or set that includes all the possible Johns. A similar thing happens when we talk about ‘keeping up with the Joneses’. In some cases, a noun has been derived from a verb.
It also has another use which is very much like a pronoun but which differs from all others in the sense that it actually does replace a noun. It is like a pronoun in the sense that its meaning is recovered by making the link to something already said in the text or something known from the context or situation. In example (16), it is clear that one is substituted for medication. e. 3 Word and group classes medications) and not the same object as would be the case with a personal pronoun. This distinction is shown in example (17), where it and the expression the new medication refer to the same object.
Clearly, there are significant similarities in terms of how they are used by speakers but pronouns are not simply another kind of noun. In fact, the similarities between pronouns and names (proper nouns) are considerable and there are some good reasons for grouping these two categories together. It isn’t so important how they are grouped but it is important to be able to recognize a pronoun. You may have been told in school that a pronoun replaces a noun. This isn’t actually true. This point will be made clearer in the next chapter but for now a simple example should illustrate what I mean.