By Alphonsus V. Pocius

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The factor E is known as the tensile modulus or Young’s modulus of the material in test. 49 Young’s modulus has the units of stress, Pascal (Pa) in SI units and pounds per square inch (psi) in English units. Since the above equation, σ = E  expresses the relation between the stress and strain rather than force and displacement, Young’s modulus is a materials parameter describing how a material reacts to a given tensile force. If the slope of the stress-strain plot is steep, then Young’s modulus is high and a large tensile load must be applied to the sample to get a small elongation of the material.

5, is w. At the instant of crack growth, the infinitesimal change in the available energy with the change in the crack’s length must exceed the minimum energy necessary for crack growth. 13) w a w a C,min Define a materials parameter, C, as being the minimum change in the strain energy density with crack length necessary to cause the propagation of a crack. 14) This expression says that for a body of width w, the change in energy with a change in crack length has to be greater than or equal to the quantity C, called the critical strain energy release rate.

In future chapters it will be seen that all of these quantities have significant bearing on the use of polymers in adhesives. The above description of the viscoelastic properties of materials as they are affected by a sinusoidal stress or strain should be very familiar to mechanical and electrical engineers. The description is entirely analogous to the damped oscillator problem in mechanics and the RC circuit in electronics. The phase angles have the same meaning and tan  has a meaning analogous to the “Q” of a circuit.

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