By Alexander S. Raikhel (auth.), Kerry F. Harris (eds.)

Volume nine during this sequence comprises 4 chapters on vectors that impact human or animal overall healthiness and 6 chapters on plant pathogens and their vectors. In bankruptcy 1, Alex S. Raikhel discusses vitellogenesis in mosquitoes: the cornerstone of the reproductive cycle concerning huge creation of yolk precursors by means of the fats physique and their accumulation in constructing oocytes. In anautogeneous mosquitoes, vitellogenesis depends at the availability of a blood meal and, as a result, is associated with transmission of pathogens. accordingly, elucidation of mechanisms governing the mosquito vitellogenesis is important for the winning improvement of novel concepts in vector and sickness administration. earlier reports on mosquito vitellogenesis have dealt predominantly with hormonal keep an eye on. The objective of this evaluation, even though, is to summarize major development which has been accomplished in realizing mosquito vitellogenesis on the mobile, biochemical and molecular degrees. it really is with those disciplines that we predict to completely comprehend the mechanisms governing this key strategy in mosquito reproduction.

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Four of these genes are believed to be actively transcribed (68). Restriction enzyme mapping demonstrated that two of the four genes (AI and A2) have very similar restriction sites, and the other two have no sites in common with the first two genes. 5 kb mRNA present only in the fat body of vitellogenic females (68). Vitellogenin genes from Anopheles gambiae, a major vector of falciparum malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, have been also cloned (137, Romans and Miller, unpublished). The Anopheles Vg gene family also consists of four or five closely linked genes.

Chem. 260:6434-6439. 4. , 1983, Mosquito juvenile hormone: identification and bioassay activity, J. Insect Physiol. 29:465470. 5. , 1980, Induction of follicle separation in the mosquito by physiological amounts of ecdysterone, Science Washington, 209:819-821. 6. , 1978, Ultrastructural changes in the fat body of adult female Aedes aegypti in relationship to vitellogenin synthesis, Cell Tiss. Res. 186:499-506. 7. , 1971, Initiation of yolk deposition by juvenile hormone, Nature. 230:220-222. 8.

Bownes (20, 21) has hypothesized that JH along with products of sex determination genes plays a direct role in activation of yolk protein genes in Drosophila. She further suggested that in Drosophila 20-HE affects rates of expression of the yolk protein genes. It is possible that in the female mosquito the role of 20-HE is to enhance the expression of Vg genes, which has already been initiated by JH. Alternatively, 20-HE may act on Vg genes in the mosquito prior to a blood meal, but their actual expression remains arrested until a blood meal.

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