By Robert D. Van Valin Jr.

This quantity provides examine on significant matters in syntactic conception inside position and Reference Grammar. This idea was once first provided intimately in Functional Syntax and common Grammar [FSUG], and those papers signify either expansions and functions of the speculation to a variety of phenomena. the 1st part includes an advent to the speculation that is the main thorough assertion of it on account that FSUG, summarizing the good points of function and Reference Grammar proven there and constructing new theoretical elements and analyses of syntactic phenomena no longer mentioned within the prior paintings. in the course of the dialogue beneficial properties of RRG are in comparison and contrasted with related beneficial properties of alternative syntactic theories. the rest of the quantity is dedicated to specified analyses of particular difficulties, e.g. keep an eye on, case marking, in a wide selection of languages, e.g. Mandarin chinese language, Nootka, Mparntwe Arrernte and Turkish. hence the works awarded right here illustrate good the powerful cross-linguistic method of syntactic idea and outline in position and Reference Grammar.

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B. " The same pattern holds for other types of phrases. g. antz-e (3ERG-husband the woman-DEF) "the woman's husband" [lit. g. s-malal "her husband". Thus head-marking constructions are endocentric (in the sense of Bloomfield 1933). The same cannot be said of the dependent-marking pattern. g. the woman's husband —» (the) husband, the result is grammatical but is no longer a possessive construction, unlike its Tzotzil counterpart. These dependent-marking constructions are thus exocentric, in Bloomfield's sense.

A. a. No No Yes Yes No Table 2 The collective effect of these tests is to differentiate the four classes. It should be noted that it is necessary to adapt the tests to the features of the language under investigation. For example, one of the tests Dowty gives to differentiate states from the other classes is "has habitual interpretation in simple present tense", which is clearly an English-specific test. Similarly, the progressive test is applicable only to languages with a progressive tenseaspect form.

The continuum may be rep­ resented as in Figure 15. The anchor points of the thematic relation con­ tinuum are agent (the willful, volitional, instigating participant) at one end and patient (the non-willful, non-instigating, maximally affected partici­ pant) at the other. In between the endpoints, there is a continuum of 42 ROBERT D. VAN VALIN, JR. thematic relations of more agent-like or more patient-like roles. This con­ tinuum is flexible, for languages divide it up in different ways. There are, however, certain restrictions upon the ways that it can be divided up.

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