By Pavel Polian

In the course of his reign over the previous Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin oversaw the pressured resettlement of six million humans – a maniacal ardour that he used for social engineering. The Soviets weren't the 1st to thrust resettlement on its inhabitants – an incredible attribute of totalitarian structures – yet when it comes to sheer numbers, applied sciences used to deport humans and the lawlessness which followed it, Stalin’s approach was once the main impressive. Six million humans of other social, ethnic, and professions have been resettled prior to Stalin’s demise. Even this day, the aftermath of such deportations principally predetermines occasions which happen within the northern Caucasus, Crimea, the Baltic republics, Moldavia, and western Ukraine.

Polian’s quantity is the 1st try and comprehensively learn the heritage of compelled and semi-voluntary inhabitants pursuits inside of or prepared by way of the Soviet Union. Contents diversity from the early Nineteen Twenties to the rehabilitation of repressed nationalities within the Nineteen Nineties, facing inner (kulaks, ethnic and political deportations) and foreign pressured migrations (German internees and occupied territories).

An abundance of proof, figures, tables, maps, and an exhaustively-detailed annex will function vital resources for additional researches.

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Additional info for Against Their Will: The History and Geography of Forced Migrations in the USSR

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After the defeat of Germany in the First World War and the consequent reduction of its territory, around 1 million Germans resettled from the Baltic states to the remainder of German territory. Simultaneously, a current of refugees rushed from eastern Ukraine and Belorussia to Poland. 5 to 3 million persons. However, these were refugees rather than deportees (with perhaps one exception of the Philosophers’ ship with some 150 people aboard). In 1921 a Refugee Settlement Commission headed by Fridtjof Nansen was founded under the aegis of the League of Nations.

The Jewish population in Moscow comprised categories holding different status. Merchants, qualified physicians, engineers and lawyers enjoyed 20 AGAINST THEIR WILL the right to unconditional residence, along with retired (so-called Nicholas’) soldiers. , valid only when they were actually employed in the trade indicated in their “craft” identity cards. 2 On 29 March 1891, Alexander III issued a decree that banned Jewish craftsmen from settling in Moscow and the Moscow Oblast, and envisaged the expulsion of those that were already living there.

Troitsky) and in Jaroslaw (V. S. Zhegarov). Available data show that up to 128 thousand ethnic Germans, including 15 thousand Poles claiming German origin, were evacuated to the West by 8 February 1940. 39 The Soviet–German agreements on repatriation into Germany envisaged the right of ethnic Germans residing on the territories annexed by the USSR to “repatriate” from the USSR. This repatria- Prehistory and Classification 31 tion was based on ethnic criteria exclusively. Neither Slavs, nor Jews— even if they were family members of the “Aryans”—qualified for the resettlement.

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