By Riedel, E.

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REFERENCES 12 CHAPTER 2 CHEMISTRY OF YARN AND FABRIC PREPARATION I. YARN PREPARATION A. Warp Size In the production of woven fabrics, warp yarns a r e sized with a protective coating to improve weaving efficiency. Movement of the warp yarn through the heddles and mechanical actions during insertion of filling creates a great deal of abrasive stresses on these yarns. Unprotected, the warp yarns cannot withstand t h e rigors of weaving. They will break causing machine to stop and t h u s be responsible for loss of productivity.

PVA Size Recovery Ultrafiltration Unit 27 PVA Reclamation Schematics VI. ACRYLIC SIZES A. Polyacrylic Acid Polyacrylic acid is a water soluble polyelectrolyte that has excellent adhesion to nylon therefore it is used to size filament nylon yarns. The affinity is through hydrogen bonding of t h e -COOH with amide and amine end groups in the nylon polymer. 1. Synthesis of Polyacrylic Acid 2. Desizing Polyacrylic Acid By converting t h e -COOH to -COONa, water solubility of t h e polymer is increased and hydrogen bonding with t h e fiber is overcome.

Straight chain primary alcohols ranging from C6 to C24 are made by the Alfol process, a catalytic polymerization of ethylene. 5. Cetyl alcohol is found in spermaceti oil. Chemically, spermaceti oil is a wax a n d is the mono-ester of palmitic acid a n d cetyl alcohol. 37 D. Mineral Wax 1. Paraffin Paraffin waxes come from a purified mixture of solid hydrocarbons obtained from the distillation of petroleum. This mixture contains C23 to C33 hydrocarbons. Straight chain hydrocarbons are solids, branched ones are oils.

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