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Oklahoma and New Mexico 131 Wild Horse Lake, July 6-9, 1739 131 The First Mountain, July 10-12, 1739 136 The Red River, July 13-14, 1739 140 The Road to Santa Fe, July 15-22, 1739 144 Santa Fe, 1739-1740 155 The Land of the Imagination, 1740 158 7. The Return 163 The Canadian River Trail, May 1-10, 1740 163 The Trail of the Pawnees, May 11-13, 1740 167 Along the Canadian River, May 14-June 7, 1740 171 On the River, June 15-22, 1740 174 Page ix 8. The Aftermath, 1741-1756 179 9. Epilogue 209 Appendix A: Documents from 1740 215 French-language abstract of the 1739-1740 Mallet expedition 215 Certificate given by Hurtado 221 Letter to Pere de Beaubois by Padre Rebald 222 Letter to the Minister from Bienville and Salmon 223 Appendix B: Documents from the Fabry Expedition 227 Orders to Fabry de la Bruyère 227 Letter from Bienville and Salmon to Governor of New Mexico 229 Extracts of letters from the Fabry Expedition 230 Appendix C: Documents from the 1750 Expedition 245 Letter from de Rouille to Vaudreuil 245 Letter dictated by Pierre Mallet 247 List of trade goods made by Bernardo de Miera 249 List compiled by Compañero Joseph Manuel Morales 250 References 251 Afterword 271 Index 273 Page xi ILLUSTRATIONS Section of the 1805 Lewis and Clark map 5 The 1602 Miguel map 9 The Mallet route across Nebraska 54 Tribal locations in the Great Plains, 1739 55 Portion of the Evans map 60 Places visited by the Mallets en route to Santa Fe 62 The Mallet route, May 29-June 1, 1739 65 The Lone Tree 67 The Mallet route, June 2-10, 1739 71 Pawnee village and trails 73 The Mallet route, June 10-13, 1739 75 The Mallet route, June 14, 1739 79 The Mallet route, June 15-17, 1739 82 The sacred animal lodge at Guide Rock 84 The Mallet route across Kansas 86 Page xii The Mallet route, June 17-18, 1739 87 Frémont's map of the Pawnee Trail 89 The Mallet route, June 19, 1739 95 The Mallet route, June 20, 1739 99 The 1807 Pike sketch map 101 The Pawnee Trail in the vicinity of Cheyenne Bottom 103 The Mallet route, June 21-23, 1739 104 Getting a taste of western history 106 The 1867 Hunnius map 107 The Mallet route, June 24-29, 1739 109 The Red Hills in the vicinity of Sun City, Kansas 114 The Mallet route, June 30, 1739 117 Purported Coronado inscription 120 The Cimarron River bluffs 126 The Mallet route, July 1-5, 1739 128 The Mallet route in Oklahoma and New Mexico 132 The Mallet route, July 6-9, 1739 133 The Mallet route, July 10-12, 1739 137 Apache Canyon, New Mexico 140 The Mallet route, July 13-14, 1739 141 The Mallet route, July 15-18, 1739 145 The Mallet route, July 19-22, 1739 147 Higgins Canyon, New Mexico 150 Picuris Pass 152 The 1758 Miera y Pacheco map 153 Urrutia's 1766 "Plano de la Villa de Santa Fee" 156 Land of the Imagination 159 The 1601 Martinez map 164 James map of the Long expedition 168 Detail of Lewis and Clark's 1804 map 172 The Red River on the 1810 Pike-Nau map 176 The Canadian River on the 1810 Pike-Nau map 180 Page xiii PREFACE In June 1740, four French Canadians arrived in New Orleans, the capital of the colony of Louisiana.

Lawrence River. A scarcity of arable land and the continuing threat of Iroquois raids kept them there (Eccles 1972: 35). Continual subdivision of properties and need for river frontage created long, narrow holdings and prevented the formation of villages. This settlement pattern was one of the factors that generated a new kind of person, dramatically different from the peasants of France. The lack of villages meant reduced control by seigniorial, religious, and royal authorities (Eccles 1972: 50).

The colony was nearly self-sufficient in food and generated variable profits from the fur trade. In Canada, relationships between secular and religious authorities were not as fractious as in New Mexico. Canadian clerics published the Jesuit Relations as a public relations scheme that benefited both the colony and the Society of Jesus. The Jesuits were also deeply involved in generating support for the establishment of the settlement at Montreal (Eccles 1969: 39). Missionary activities began as early as 1604.

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